Need for electric and hybrid vehicles-Comparative study of electric and hybrid vehicles-Limitations of electric vehicles- Petroleum resources- Global warming-Fuel cell vehicles-Optimum solutions for motor, drives and batteries


Represents the concept of using electric power train technologies, in-vehicle information, and communication technologies and connected infrastructures to enable the electric propulsion of vehicles and fleets.

Need for electric and hybrid vehicle

  • Electric vehicles are saving the climate and our lives.
  • Electric vehicles have a smaller carbon footprint than gasoline-powered cars.
  • Aims to ensure that the people who are most impacted by pollution have the option to use truly clean and zero-emissions vehicles.
  • Preserve the Resources for Future Generation

What is meant by electric vehicle?

electric vehicle

An electric vehicle (EV) is one that operates on an electric motor, instead of an internal-combustion engine that generates power by burning a mix of fuel and gases.

What is meant by hybrid vehicle?

electric vehicle

A hybrid is a car that is powered by a conventional engine, an  electric motor and a hybrid battery.

Classification of electric vehicle.

  • Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
  • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)

Types of EVs





•Electric motor drives

•Electric motor drives •ICE

•Electric motor drives

Energy system

•Battery •ultracapacitor

•Battery •Ultracapacitor

•ICE generating unit

•Fuel cells

Energy source and infrastructure

•Electric grid charging facilities

•Gasoline stations •Electric grid charging facilities (optional for plug-in hybrid)


•Methanol or gasoline •ethanol


•Zero emission •Independence on fossil oil •Commercially available

•Low emission •Higher fuel economy •Commercially available

•Zero emission Independence on fossil oil

•High energy efficiency

•Under development (future trend)

Major issues

•Limitations of battery

•Short range (100-200km)

•Charging facilities

•Dependence on Fossil fuel


•High fuel cell cost •Lack of infrastructure

Limitations of electric vehicle

->Some EVs Have Short Ranges for Driving
  • Many electric models can drive only 60 to 100 miles. 
  • However, some models offer somewhere between 200 and 300 miles after a full  charge.
->Charging Can Take a Lot of Time
  • An electric vehicle takes much longer to recharge, and the time investment and  necessary planning does put some people off. 
  • Many electric cars can be full in around four hours, but some can take nearly a day to  fully recharge. 
  • The good news is that there are some kits that can cut the charging time down.
->The Initial Investment is Steep
  • More affordable brands can be around $30,000 to $40,000. 
  • If you’re looking for a luxury option, you may be paying $80,000 or even more
->Charging Stations Aren’t Available Everywhere 
->Lower Amount of Choices 
->Electricity isn’t Free
->Battery Replacement 
->Some Governments Do Not Provide Money Saving Initiatives to Encourage You to Buy an Electric Car
->Not Suitable for Cities, Facing Shortage of Power.

Petroleum resource

Petroleum: a thick, flammable, yellow-to-black mixture of solid, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons that occurs naturally beneath the Earth’s surface.
Hydrocarbons: organic compounds consisting of H and C
Solids (e.g. paraffin) are not abundant, but have many uses
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