1. Pattern making:

A metallic die, typically of aluminium, having the hollow space form similar to the form of the pattern is taken and molten wax is injected into it. When the wax solidifies, the die is opened and the pattern is removed. For monetary considerations, it’s far a traditional practice to make a gated sample through assembling numerous wax patterns in a tree-like shape onto a significant runner or sprue. Heated tool known as spatula is used for assembling wax gates and sprue to the wax patterns.

2. Pattern investment:

The multi-pattern assembly is protected in a permeable box. A nice ceramic primarily based totally slurry referred to as investment is poured into the box. While the entire assembly is given low frequency vibrations. (The call of the casting process is derived from this process).Fineness of slurry is important because it determines the surface end of the final castings. One way is to a How drying of the investment across the gated pattern in the box itself. Alternatively, the gated pattern with a thin coating of investment on it’s far take Fell out and after drying of this initial coating, the pattern is re-covered many times with a rough refractory powder till a coating thickness of five-10 mm has been built up over the complete wax pattern meeting.

3. Pattern melting and removal:

After the investment has set across the pattern tree and dried, it’s far heated; for a temperature of 100°C-I5O°C through conserving it in an inverted position for the wax pattern-tree to melt and run out (de-waxing).

4. Investment hardening:

The mold of investment material is completely hardened through putting it for approximately 2 hours in an oven at a temperature of 700°C- 1000°C, relying at the metallic to be cast. This additionally burns off any residual wax in the mold cavities.

5. Metal pouring and fettling of castings:

As quickly as the mold is removed from the oven, the molten metallic is poured into it. When solidified, the cast tree of the additives is retrieved through breaking the mold manufactured from the brittle investment material. Each factor is then cautiously reduce from the tree and fettled. The investment casting method makes use of a pattern that is typically manufactured from low melting point wax (or it may additionally be manufactured from plastic, which include polystyrene). A mold is ready across the pattern and the pattern material is then melted out through heating earlier than pouring the molten metallic. The method is likewise known as the lost wax casting method or the precision casting process.

investment casting


  1. Most ferrous and non-ferrous metals may be cast. This method is specifically appropriate for casting of alloys which are expensive, hard, difficult-to-machine, and feature excessive melting point and high strength.
  2. It is viable to supply intricate shaped parts weighing from 1g to 10 kg.
  3. It is viable to supply elements as massive as 1.five m in diameter with as thin partitions as 1mm.
  4. The components produced have suitable surface finish with matte look and close dimensional tolerances of the order of ±5microns.
  5. The elements produced do now no longer usually want any in addition machining or finishing operations.
  6. This process is adaptable to automatic mass production.


  1. The moulds can handiest be used once.
  2. The method is relatively slow.
  3. The charges incurred because of the investment material and wanted talent of labour are high.
  4. The method is commonly limited to small length and light weight castings.


The method is specifically advantageous for making small precision parts of intricate shapes. Typical elements made from this method are mechanical additives which include gears, cams, valves, turbine blades, turbo-supercharge buckets and vanes of jet propelled engines

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