Introduction to manufacturing technology

Manufacturing, in its broadest meaning, is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods. It includes the design and manufacture of goods using a variety of manufacturing techniques and methods.

 The act of creating or generating something. To turn (a raw material) into a finished product, especially by the use of a large-scale industrial activity. To manufacture or process (a product), particularly with the aid of industrial machinery. In a mechanical sense, to manufacture, manufacture, or flip out. To create or process products, particularly in large quantities and using industrial machines.

Science, Engineering and Technology

Science is the systematic investigation or study of events with the goal of establishing enduring norms by the application of formal procedures, such as the medical method. Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and fabricating equipment and structures based on scientific findings and tactics. To achieve some practical results, the advancement of generation may also draw on a variety of domains of knowledge, such as medical, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical information. Because technologies must meet requirements such as utility, usefulness, and safety, they aren’t always totally scientific.

Source of Words:

  • Manufacturing – derived from Latin
  • Manufacture  – made through hand
  • Manufacture acting in 1567
  • Manufacturing – 1683

CASTING: Introduction

CASTING: Introduction

Cast steel goods are used in almost everything that moves, rotates, rolls, or flies. Steel casting plays an important part in all of our economy’s major industries. Castings can be found in locomotives, automobiles, trucks, planes, office buildings, factories, schools, and private residences. Casting is the process of putting molten steel into a mould with a hollow space for the form to be created and allowing it to harden. The selected steel item is removed from the mould when it has set, either by breaking the mould or dismantling it. Casting refers to the solidified item. This method allows for the regular application of electricity and tension to intricate elements that would otherwise be unavailable.

 A few heat-resistant materials make up the mould into which the steel is poured. Sand is commonly utilised because it can withstand the high temperatures of molten metal.

Casting techniques divide into two categories

  • Expendable-mold casting (Sand Casting)
  • Permanent-mold casting (Die Casting)


One of the first steel shaping processes involving humans. It is a process in which molten metal flows into a mould under gravity or varying pressures and solidifies in the form of the mould hollow space. In most cases, the term “casting” also refers to the component created in this manner. Metals, ceramics, and polymers can all be used in the process.


  • Metals are typically cast over a period of time.
  • Machine Frames and Engine Blocks are two examples of castings.
  • Plastics are moulded over a period of time.
  • Cake pans, ice cube trays, and the like are examples of moulds.

Sand casting and die casting are two different types of castings.

Sand casting is the process of pouring molten steel directly into a sand mould and then breaking the mould apart to remove the casting. Sand casting necessitates the creation of a pattern, which is a full-scale replica of the part.

 Die casting is a type of permanent-mold casting in which molten steel is poured into the hollow space of the mould under high pressure. Die casting moulds are referred to as dies. At most cases, casting is done in a foundry.

 Foundry: A factory where moulds are made, molten steel is melted and handled, the casting process is demonstrated, and the finished casting is cleaned. Foundrymen are those who work in the casting industry.

Simple Steps in casting:

  1. Prepare mold (the usage of pattern) /die
  2. Melting molten steel and pouring it into a mould or die.
  3. Let it solidify ( Solidification and cooling)
  4. Removal, Cleaning, Finishing and Inspection techniques.

CASTING: Advantages

  1. Casting can be used to make parts with complex geometries, including both outside and inside shapes. Some casting methods are capable of producing net-form pieces.
  2. (No corresponding production activities are required to produce the appropriate geometry and size of the parts.)
  3. Other casting procedures are similar to online form, but require a little extra form processing (usually machining) to get accurate dimensions and features.
  4. Casting can be used to create extremely large pieces.
  5. Castings with a total weight of more than 100 lots had been manufactured.
  6. Any steel that can be heated to a liquid state can be used in the casting process.
  7. Some casting techniques lend themselves well to mass production.

CASTING: Disadvantages

Different dangers for unique casting tactics. Obstacles on mechanical characteristics, porosity, negative dimensional accuracy, and floor end for a few casting techniques, human safety hazards while processing warm molten metals, and environmental issues are just a few of them.

CASTING: Applications

  1. Casting techniques produce parts ranging in size from minor components worth a few ounces to gigantic products weighing hundreds of pounds.

  2. Dental crowns, jewels, statuary, wood-burning stoves, engine blocks and heads for automotive vehicles, machine frames, railway wheels, frying pans, pipes, and pump housings are among the elements included.
  3. Ferrous and nonferrous metals of all sorts can be cast.


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