Rolling is a compressive deformation process in which two opposed cylindrical instruments called rollers reduce the thickness of a slab or plate. The rolls rotate, drawing the work into the space between them and compressing it.

Rolling is usually the initial step in the process of transforming raw material into a final wrought product.

Blooms, billets, and slabs are formed from large beginning stock (called ingot).

Slabs can be rolled further to become plates, sheets, and strips. These hot-rolled products are typically used as the raw material for further processing such as cold forming, machining, or welding.

  1. Bloom: A bloom has a square or rectangular cross-section with a thickness of at least 150 mm and a width of between 150 and 300 mm.
  2. Billet: A billet is a smaller version of a bloom, with a square cross-section of 40 mm x 40 mm or greater but less than bloom size.
  3. Slab: A slab is a rectangular cross-section with a width that is three times its thickness. It is typically 250 mm wide by 40 mm thick, though it can be larger.
  4. Plate: A plate is a solid with a rectangular cross-section and a thickness of at least 6 mm but not more than 40 mm.
  5. A sheet is a thin piece of paper that is usually less than 6 mm thick.
  6. A foil is a thin sheet of metal (less than 0.01 mm thick).

It is a technique for lowering the thickness of a lengthy workpiece by applying compressive stresses through a group of rolls.

Rolling is a deformation process in which compressive pressures exerted by two opposing rolls diminish the thickness of the object.


The rolls revolve in order to draw and squeeze the work between them. Flat rolling is the basic procedure for reducing the thickness of a rectangular cross section.

Shape rolling, in which a square cross section is moulded into a shape such as an I-beam, is a similarly similar process.

The majority of rolling operations are capital expensive, necessitating the use of enormous machines known as rolling mills. Because of the hefty initial investment, the mills must be utilised to produce huge numbers of conventional commodities such as sheets and plates.

Due to the significant amount of deformation necessary, the majority of rolling is done by hot working, also known as hot rolling. Residual stresses are often absent in hot-rolled metal, and its characteristics are isotropic.



Hot rolling has the disadvantage of being unable to hold precise tolerances and leaving a distinct oxide scale on the surface.

The most prevalent use of rolling mill operations is steelmaking.

The steps in a steel rolling mill are shown in order to show the range of products that can be manufactured.

  • The work begins as a freshly solidified cast steel ingot.
  • The ingot is placed in a furnace while it is still hot, where it will remain for many hours until it has acquired a uniform temperature throughout, allowing the metal to flow consistently throughout rolling.
  • The ideal rolling temperature for steel is roughly 1200°C (2200°F).
  • Soaking is the heating process, and soaking pits are the furnaces in which it is carried out.
  • After soaking, the ingot is sent to the rolling mill, where it is rolled into blooms, billets, or slabs, which are three intermediate shapes.
  • After that, the intermediate shapes are rolled into final product shapes.
  • Blooms are rolled into railroad track structural shapes and rails.
  • Billets are shaped into bars and rods by rolling. The basic materials for chining, wire drawing, forging, and other metalworking processes are these shapes.
  • Plates, sheets, and strips are formed from slabs.
  • Shipbuilding, bridges, boilers, welded constructions for various heavy machinery, tubes and pipelines, and a variety of other goods all employ hot-rolled plates.
  • Cold rolling is frequently used to flatten hot-rolled plates and sheets in order to prepare them for following sheet metal operations.
  • Cold rolling strengthens the metal and allows for a tighter thickness tolerance. Furthermore, the cold-rolled sheet’s surface is free of scale and generally superior to the hot-rolled counterpart. Cold-rolled sheets, strips, and coils are perfect for stampings, external panels, and other sections of items ranging from vehicles to appliances and office furniture because of these properties.

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