In India maximum power (about 65%) is developed by steam power plant. This power plant uses coal as fuel and water for producing steam. The thermal energy avail able in steam is converted into mechanical energy and is used for driving steam turbines. Steam turbine is coupled to generator and hence power is produced whenever turbine is rotated.
Prime factors for starting a Steam Power Plant
The following factors are to be considered for starting a steam power plant:
- Availability of fuel, coal.
- Availability of water.
- Availability of strong soil foundation.
- Availability of transport facilities.
- Availability of labours and Engineers.
- Availability of sufficient space for Power Plant Equipment, space for disposing ash space for storing raw coal, and space for expansion.
Components of a Steam Power Plant
The following are the major components of a steam
- A furnace for combustion (for firing coal).
- A boiler for generating steam from water.
- A steam turbine to use steam for driving the rotor.
- A Generator to produce power.
- Fans to supply air for combustion.
- Fans to handle flue gas.
- Air heaters to preheat the cold air.
- Electrostatic Precipitator to remove ash from flue gas.
- Chimney to create draft and to discharge the flue gas to atmosphere.
- Feed water system to supply feed water.
- Cooling system such as cooling towers and condensers to cool the steam dis charged from turbine.
- Coal handling plant.
- Ash disposal system.
Layout of Steam power plant
Functions of each component of a steam power plant
- Primary Air fan: This fan supplies primary air for drying the raw coal and to carry pulverized coal to the burner for combustion.
- Forced Draft fan: This fan supplies secondary air for completing the combustion.
- Induced Draft fan: This fan sucks the flue gas and discharges the flue gas through chimney.
- Air heater: This is used to preheat the primary air and secondary air by transferring the heat from flue gas to air.
- Electrostatic Precipitator: Electrostatic precipitator is used to separate the ash from flue gas.
- Feed Pump: This is used to supply feed water to the boiler.
- Boiler: This is used to convert water into steam by transferring the heat from combustion of fuels. Turbo
- Turbo Generator: The steam turbine is coupled to a generator and it is called Generator. The steam from the boiler is used to drive the Turbo Generator to pro duce power.
- Feed Water Heaters: There are used to heat the condensate water.
- Raw Coal Bunker: This is used to store raw coal and to feed the coal to the coal feeder.
- Raw Coal Feeder: This is used to supply the required quantity of coal to the mill,
- Mill: This is used to pulverize the raw coal.
- Economiser: This is used to preheat the feed water.
- Super heater: This is used to superheat the saturated steam and to supply super heated steam to the turbine.
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